The Carlsbad Decrees were a set of laws aiming to oppress nationalist and liberal movements in post-Napoleonic Europe. Enacted in 1819, they were abolished in 1848.
When was the first "Burschenschaft" student fraternity founded?
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The first "Burschenschaft" was founded in Jena in 1815. It is called the "Urburschenschaft".
Student fraternities and August von Kotzebue
Over the next few years the number of fraternities grew. In October 1817 they hosted the , celebrating German unionist tendencies. were part of the festival. One of the authors whose books were burned was .
Kotzebue was a critic of the movement. Upset about Kotzebue's writing, fraternity member Karl Sand Kotzebue in March 1819.
Parts of the liberal movement approved of the murder, shocking the conservative government. Karl Sand was in May 1820.
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August von Kotzebue
The Carlsbad Decrees of September 1819
became increasingly apolitical.
Books and newspapers
were put under greater governmental control.
The Burschenschaft fraternities
The educated middle classes
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The Carlsbad Decrees were introduced by the German Confederation.
The biggest German liberal gathering before 1848 was the...
While the Carlsbad Decrees were not abolished till 1848, the liberal/nationalist movement regained strength in the years following 1932, the year of the Hambach festival.