Events in Germany between 1815 and 1848

This period is called "Vormärz" (pre-March, referring to the German March Revolution of 1848). It is marked by conservative politics in most German states.




When was the Wartburg festival?

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About 500 people attended the Wartburg festival in 1817. Mostly fraternity students demonstrated their desire for a German nation state. The Austrian politician Klemens von Metternich perceived the movement as a danger to the German monarchies and demanded surveillance of the fraternities.

When were the Carlsbad Decrees passed?

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The Carlsbad Decrees were a response to the assassination of the conservative author August von Kotzebue by a fraternity member. The fraternities were banned. Censorship and university surveillance increased.

When was the Hambach Festival?

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In May 1832 about 30 000 people attended the Hambach Festival. They demanded a liberal and (partially) democratic constitution. The German Confederation reacted by increasing censorship and other forms of suppression.

When was the "Frankfurter Wachensturm"?

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On April 3 1833 about 50 people aimed to spark a revolution, but the German population remained passive, causing the attempt to fail.
The insurgents attacked the police stations in Frankfurt, the seat of the German Confederation's Federal Assembly ("Bundesversammlung").

When was the Zollverein founded

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The customs union Zollverein was founded in 1834. Most German states eventually joined it, excluding Austria.

When were the "Göttingen Seven" dismissed?

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The "Göttingen Seven" protested against the abolition of the constitution of the Kingdom of Hanover.

When was the Silesian Weavers' Uprising?

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The Uprising of about 3000 insurgents in June 1844 was suppressed by the Prussian army. It had been preceded by decades of worsening living conditions. Machines and books were destroyed in the uprising as new technology made it hard for traditional weavers to compete in textile manufacturing.