The Carlsbad Decrees

The Carlsbad Decrees were a set of laws aiming to oppress nationalist and liberal movements in post-Napoleonic Europe. Enacted in 1819, they were abolished in 1848.


When was the first "Burschenschaft" student fraternity founded?

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The first "Burschenschaft" was founded in Jena in 1815. It is called the "Urburschenschaft".

Student fraternities and August von Kotzebue

Over the next few years the number of
fraternities grew. In October 1817 they hosted the
, celebrating German unionist tendencies.
were part of the festival. One of the authors whose books were burned was
Kotzebue was a critic of the
movement. Upset about Kotzebue's writing, fraternity member Karl Sand
Kotzebue in March 1819.
Parts of the liberal movement approved of the murder, shocking the conservative government. Karl Sand was
in May 1820.
Wartburg Festival
August von Kotzebue
Book burnings
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Some info here and here.

The Carlsbad Decrees of September 1819

became increasingly apolitical.

Books and newspapers
were put under greater governmental control.

The Burschenschaft fraternities
were censored

The educated middle classes
were banned

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The Carlsbad Decrees were introduced by the German Confederation.
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The biggest German liberal gathering before 1848 was the...

While the Carlsbad Decrees were not abolished till 1848, the liberal/nationalist movement regained strength in the years following 1932, the year of the Hambach festival.